transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in ozonated wastewater

Type of project: BSc or MSc internship
Starting date: September 2023
Duration: 6-12 months
Location: Wetsus, European centre of excellence for sustainable water technology, at Leeuwarden. In collaboration with TU Delft.


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has become a serious threat to the environment and public health worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Wastewater has been recognized as one of the sources of releasing AMR elements into aquatic environments. Advanced wastewater treatment (AWWT) is now emerging as an effective treatment to remove pharmaceuticals from wastewater. However, lab scale studies show that antibiotic resistance bacteria survive and regrows in higher concentrations after applying one of the AWWT, ozonation. With the ability of bacteria to acquire genes from the environment and other bacteria (horizontal gene transfer – HGT), the spread of AMR can be accelerated. It is presumed that conjugation is the primary mechanism of HGT. Whether conjugation events will also be higher after applying ozonation has to be studied.

Your responsibilities

  • Sampling from reactor
  • Culturing, isolating GMO fluorescent strains and counting colony forming units.
  • Data analysis and report results

Our requirements

  • EU citizen or international student registered at a Dutch university enrolled in graduate (BSc or MSc) studies
  • Background in Microbiology and Molecular Biology
  • Overall interest in environmental biology, wastewater treatment and microbiology/antibiotic resistance
  • Well communication verbally and written in English
  • Previous experience in culturing methods (preferably ML-II)
  • Precise, organized, and reliable


Your benefits

  • Contribution to science, and a sustainable and healthy environment.
  • Experience to work with GMO fluorescent microorganisms.
  • Experience to work in an international environment.
  • Experience to work in a multidisciplinary joint internship project with Wetsus and TU Delft.
  • Allowance of 200 EUR/month (or 400 EUR/month with a European grant).

For more information, please contact Elfy Ly ( Please apply for this position by filling in the application form.

Application Form: Conjugative transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in ozonated wastewater

  • Max. bestandsgrootte: 1 GB.
  • Max. bestandsgrootte: 1 GB.