Membrane filtration and ion exchange are both well proven technologies in the beverage and industrial water preparation fields. They have major advantages over the traditional methods; excellent product quality, limited use of chemicals and the simultaneous removal of numerous parameters. There is a disadvantage however; the creation of a concentrated salt effluent. Current practice is to release these concentrates into the sewer system or directly to surface water. This can lead to exceeding the (local) emission standards. The increasingly strict emission standards (including the European Framework Directive on Water) mean that more sustainable recycling techniques must be found.
The “Concentrates” theme is focused on finding solutions for membrane concentrates, ion
exchange reclaim and concentrated salt industrial effluent. The research is aimed primarily at:
• technologies to remove (and preferably reuse) specific components such as salts and
• concepts for the reuse of concentrates in agriculture and industry
• possibilities for reducing the volume of concentrate etc.