After appropriate treatment, wastewater can provide a secondary resource for reuse, for instance as industrial
process water. In highly populated delta regions and other regions facing water scarcity, this can help to relieve the pressure on the available fresh water resources. Micro-, ultra, nano- and other types of membranes can help to achieve this objective because they are a (selective) barrier for pollutants. In addition, membranes can also be applied in combination with biological or physical-chemical processes. Examples are the removal of micropollutants, concentration or extraction of valuable compounds from wastewaters and the retention of slow growing or non-flocculating microorganisms responsible for bulk pollutant removal or conversion. The main objective of this theme is to provide innovative solutions to make processes for wastewater treatment more robust, cheaper, to reduce their energy and chemical consumption and to alleviate the negative impact of the waste (concentrate) streams they generate. For this purpose we use a multidisciplinary approach including disciplines such membrane technology, biotechnology and process technology.