A new separation method for food applications is eutectic freeze crystallization. Wetsus researchers have explored the application of this technique for the production of lactose from whey permeate, to efficiently yield milk sugar at low energy cost while simultaneously producing pure water in the form of ice. In this publication, the researchers describe a kinetic model of the method, while proving its viability in batch processing. It was discovered that at temperatures below zero the kinetics depend on the conversion rate of beta-lactose as it is slower than the crystallization of alpha-lactose.
Halfwerk, Ruben, Doekle Yntema, Jaap Van Spronsen, Karel Keesman, and Albert Van der Padt. 2023. “Crystallization Kinetics of Lactose Recovered at Sub-Zero Temperatures: A Population Balance Model Combining Mutarotation, Nucleation and Crystal Growth.” Journal of Food Engineering 345 (111412): 111412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2023.111412.